LHCb Upgrade - Overview

This page is dedicated to the activities at LHCb-RO which support the upgrade of the LHCb detector at LHC, CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). In this context the LHCb-RO group is actively involved in the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) sub-detector upgrade programme. The LHCb detector will benefit of a much more efficient particle identification system at the end of the Second Long Shutdown (LS2) period of LHC. Towards this goal a R&D program is ongoing to rebuild a new photon detection system for RICH1 and RICH2. Instead of the Hybrid Photomultiplier-Detection tubes (HPD), currently equipping the photodetection planes of both RICHs - see "LHCb RICH Technical Design Report" (CERN LHCC 2000-037), "A simulation study of the LHCb RICH performance", a commercial baseline solution with Multi-anode Photomultiplier Tubes (MaPMT) will be implemented. An array of Elementary Cells (EC) will make up the future photodetection system. Each EC consists has cooling metallic structure on which the MaPMT tubes resides and their readout electronic chain is embedded. One or four MaPMT tubes (depending of their type) are plugged into the EC Base Board. The base board is connected to the Front-End Board populated with Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). Data flow is managed by the Digital Board implemented around Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).
A radiation hardness qualification campaign is on-going to evaluate the new ASICs (latest models available on the market in 2015) together with Commercial Off-The Shelf (COTS) electronic components at the nominal condition of iradiation, magnetic field and temperature fluctuations present around the LHCb detector during data taking.

The page structure is built on the following main topics: the presentation of the electronic devices under study, the experimental methods and results, and the talks and publications used to disseminate the results of the scientific interpretation of the experimental data. Also a separate section is dedicated to listing invited seminars and teaching activities in which members of the Upgrade group were involved.

Tasks within LHCb Upgrade Programme

The LHCb Romanian Group is actively involved in LHCb Upgrade Programme and has the following responsibilities in the frame of the RICH sub-detectors upgrade:

At the beginning of 2015, a second group (5-6 members) from Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Romania joined the group and they are in charged with firmware development for the KINTEX-7 radiation hardness evaluation.

MAROC-3
    This chip is the third member of the Multi Anode Read-Out family specially developed by $\Omega$mega to discriminate signals from MaPMT tubes or other similar photo-detector technologies. MAROC-3 allows single-photon counting and charge measurement for MaPMT with 64 channels. These performances recommend the chip to be considered in the RICH Upgrade Program for the Front-End Board (FEB) design. Currently (2015) this chip is the backup solution for main ASIC named CLARO which has a lower power consumption.
Our group developed an automated test bench for MAROC-3 online electrical parameters monitoring during irradiation procedure. In 2014-2015 the MAROC-3 radiation tolerance was tested at facilities from IFIN-HH using proton beam and X-Ray. The chip showed good stability in performing its tasks and no signs of radiation cumulative effects even at a Total Ionizing Dose (TID) of 8 Mrad, which corresponds to almost 200 years of running in LHCb conditions. The final test will aim to highlight the Single Event Effects (SEE) induced by radiation damage in the MAROC-3 dice using a 60 MeV proton beam provided by the cyclotron installation at the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (PAN Krakow).
More details about these tests are given in the Experimental Results section of this page.

SPACIROC-2
    The chip name is an abbreviation from Spatial Photomultiplier Array Counting and Integrating Readout Chip and it is also developed by $\Omega$mega. It is specially developed to read out 64 channels MaPMT tubes that will equip the Extreme Universe Space Observatory on JEM/EF (Japanese Experiment Module/Exposure Facility in the frame of the mission JEM-EUSO from ESA). JEM-EUSO). This chip is radiation hard by design and has a low power consumption of 1 mW/channel. The SPACIROC-2 will serve as blueprint for future versions of MAROC. Based on this aspect, we decided to investigate its radiation hardness to check that blocks reused from its architecture will withstand the nominal radiation conditions from LHC environment. Three test boards using SPACIROC-2 were assembled in our electronics laboratory at IFIN-HH and a dedicated test bench for online monitoring was implemented. We plan to test the chip using firstly the 60 MeV proton beam at PAN Krakow and afterwards alpha particle beams produced at the IFIN-HH facility.

KINTEX-7 FPGA
    The key component around which the Digital Board is intended to be designed is an SRAM based FPGA from KINTEX-7 family. Extensive research must be done to determine its reliability and stability in running in the radiation environment of the LHCb detector. As of autumn 2015 our group contributed to this far-reaching task by proposing, designing and entirely assembling the test bench for KINTEX-7. Preliminary version of the firmware for the device under test (DUT) was proposed and provided by the LHCb Group from Cambridge University. A fist look into radiation-hardness tests with ions for a Kintex-7 FPGA occurred in the summer of 2015 at SIRAD facility from Legnaro, Italy. During tests 3 FPGA samples were irradiated with Oxygen and Florine ions. Next goal will be to precisely classify and quantify the SEE induced by radiation into device firmware and dice. For this purpose, several dedicated firmware versions for DUT are under development, task assigned to the group from Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava.

MaPMT Testing & Qualification
    Another topic which our group intends to cover is the development of a test bench consisting in dark box for testing the functionality of some of the MaPMT models to be used in the upgraded RICH sub-detectors, completely replacing the existing Hybrid Photodetectors based light detection system. Tests like time response, dark current average rate, crosstalk and aging test will be carried out using the test bench developed by our group. The video below presents the current experimental setup developed at IFIN-HH and shows some preliminary tests.

Experimental Results

MAROC-3 Radiation Hardness Tests

Video describing the irradiation of MAROC-3 by proton beam at IFIN-HH

KINTEX-7 Radiation Hardness Tests
A custom test bench for testing the radiation hardness of an FPGA from Kintex-7 family, produced by Xilinx, was entirely designed and implemented at IFIN-HH. The goal is to evaluate this FPGA chip family in order to establish if they qualify to be used in both RICH upgraded sub-detectors (harsh radiation environment) as main component of the Digital Boards. The custom test bench consists of a power supply board, DAQ system and FPGA custom PCB. A preliminary irradiation test was performed in July, 2015 with low LET heavy ions at Legnaro National Laboratories (Legnaro, Italy) and the results will be published this year. The irradiation campaign will continue for this device during 2016.

exp. setup Legnaro
The installed experimental setup before irradiation at Legnaro, Italy (Jul, 2015)

Video presenting the irradiation tests at Legnaro facility in July, 2015

MaPMT Qualification

MaPMT experimental setup
Experimental setup for MaPMT qualification
MaPMT in light sealed box
Close-up of MaPMT installation in light sealed box
MaPMT dark current
First measurements of MaPMT dark current characteristic

Presentations & Publications

Presentations at various international research centers

  1. CERN*
    1. L. N. Cojocariu, "Upgrade R&D Status and Perspectives in RO", General RICH Meeting (October 20, 2020)
    2. V. M. Placinta, S. Wotton, "PT1000 Temperature Readings Through GBT-SCA ADC Lines", General RICH Meeting (November 12, 2019)
    3. V. M. Placinta, S. Wotton, ",Update on SCA-ADC Temperature Readings and Calibration", RICH Upgrade – Integration and Commissioning (November 1, 2019)
    4. V. M. Placinta, S. Wotton, "Update on SCA-ADC Temperature Calibration", RICH Upgrade – Integration and Commissioning (October 25, 2019)
    5. V. M. Placinta, F. Keizer, S. Wotton, "Temperature Reading through GBT-SCA ADC lines", RICH ECS meeting (October 10, 2019)
    6. V. M. Placinta, "Summary of the PDMDB module testing", RICH upgrade PDMDB testing progress meeting (March 15, 2019)
    7. V. M. Placinta, "Summary of Modules testing", RICH upgrade PDMDB testing progress meeting (March 7, 2019)
    8. L. N. Cojocariu, "TCM & DTM modules assembly activity overview", RICH upgrade PDMDB testing progress meeting (February 19, 2019)
    9. F. Maciuc, "TCM ADCs for 12 tests with 12 sets of modules on PDMBD", RICH upgrade PDMDB testing progress meeting (February 19, 2019)
    10. F. Maciuc, L. N. Cojocariu, V. M. Placinta, "RICH Upgrade PDMDB-PRR Summary of KINTEX-7 FPGA Testing in Radiation Environments, Extrapolation and Conclusions, in LHCb-RICH Production Readiness Review (PRR) meeting" (PDF), June 2018, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
    11. V. M. Placinta, "Antifuse FPGA Irradiation Campaign Status", LHCb RICH Upgrade meeting (June 5, 2018)
    12. V. M. Placinta, "Antifuse FPGA Irradiation Campaign Status", LHCb RICH Upgrade meeting (February 26, 2018)
    13. V. M. Placinta, "Updates regarding the DAQ system proposed for PDMDB monitoring", LHCb RICH Upgrade mini-meeting (April 12, 2017)
    14. F. Maciuc, "PDMDB status news open issues and road-map to the PRR: Irradiation", RICH Upgrade Meeting (November 30, 2016)
    15. F. Maciuc, "FPGA radiation hardness, a first look at the measurements done at Paul Scherrer Institute proton irradiation facility", Meeting on irradiation for RICH Upgrade (November 24, 2016)
    16. V. M. Placinta, "First measurements of the I/O signals in KINTEX-7 FPGAs in proton beam", Meeting on irradiation for RICH Upgrade (November 24, 2016)
    17. F. Maciuc,"Radiation hardness of KINTEX-7", RICH Upgrade Meeting (August 31, 2016)
    18. F. Maciuc, "Radiation hardness of KINTEX-7 -- PDMDB EDR", RICH Upgrade PDMDB EDR (June 28, 2016)
    19. F. Maciuc, "Preliminary result of KINTEX-7 Irradiation with heavy ions at Louvain", RICH Upgrade Meeting (June 14, 2016)
    20. L. N. Cojocariu, "Current architecture of the test bench for KINTEX-7 irradiation", Mini-meeting on KINTEX-7 test bench, IFIN-HH, Măgurele, România (September 15, 2015)
    21. F. Maciuc, "A fist look into radiation-hardness tests with ions for a Kintex-7 FPGA", RICH Upgrade Meeting (September 9, 2015)
    22. L. N. Cojocariu, "Status and perspectives for KINTEX-7 irradiation", Mini-meeting on irradiations for RICH Upgrade (July 8, 2015)
    23. L. N. Cojocariu, "First prototype of KINTEX7 module designed for irradiation tests", RICH Upgrade Testbeam Meeting (April 1, 2015)
    24. L. N. Cojocariu, "Irradiation of MAROC3 with X-Ray and the KINTEX7 PCB design", Mini-meeting on Irradiations for RICH Upgrade (February 20, 2015)
    25. L. N. Cojocariu, "Results of testing MAROC3 radiation hardness", RICH Upgrade Testbeam Meeting (October 27, 2014)
    26. L. N. Cojocariu, "Characterization of the MAROC 3 before irradiation", RICH Upgrade Testbeam Meeting (July 23, 2014)
    27. L. N. Cojocariu, "Multi Anode ReadOut Chip (pre-irradiation tests)", RICH Upgrade Testbeam Meeting (June 11, 2014)
  2. Ecole Polytechnique, Paris
    1. V. M. Placinta, "Discussion of SPACIROC2 irradiation results",Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, France (May 13, 2020)
    2. L. N. Cojocariu, "Data analysis for the SPACIROC2 proton irradiation",Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, France (September 9, 2016)
    3. L. N. Cojocariu, "Characterization of MAROC 3 before irradiation RICH", Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, France (August 25, 2014)
    4. L. N. Cojocariu, "Rad Hard Tests and Characterization of the MAROC3", Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, France (July 4, 2014)

Publications (articles and conference presentations)

  1. Articles and conference proceedings
    1. V. M. Placinta , L. N. Cojocariu , C. de la Taille, S. Blin Bondil, S. Mattiazzo, L. Silvestrin, A. Candelori and F . Maciuc, "Radiation effects in a SPACIROC2 ASIC and long-term reliability", Journal of Instrumentation, JINST 16 P07028 (July 2021)
    2. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, C. Ravariu, "Proton-induced radiation effects in the I/O blocks of an SRAM-based FPGA", Journal of Instrumentation, JINST 14 T1000 (October 2019)
    3. V. M. Placinta, F. Babarada, C. Ravariu, L. G. Alecu, "Digitally Controlled Electronic Load for Testing Power Supplies Reliability", Rev. Roum. Sci. Techn.– Électrotechn. et Énerg, vol. 64, no.2, pp 131-136 (June 2019)
    4. L. N. Cojocariu, V. M. Placinta, "Ion Beam Irradiation Effects in KINTEX-7 FPGA Resources", Romanian Journal of Physics, vol. 61, no. 901 (2018)
    5. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, "Radiation Hardness Studies and Evaluation of SRAM-Based FPGAs for High Energy Physics Experiments", in Proceedings of Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics - PoS(TWEPP-17), Santa Cruz California, USA (March 2018)
    6. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, C. Ravariu, "I/O Blocks Reliability for an SRAM-Based FPGA When Exposed to Ionizing Radiation", in Proceedings of 2018 International Semiconductor Conference (CAS), Sinaia, Romania (November 2018)
    7. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, C. Ravariu, "Evaluating the switching mode power supplies used in radiation hardness tests of integrated circuits", in Proceedings of 2017 International Semiconductor Conference (CAS), Sinaia, Romania (November 2017)
    8. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, C. Ravariu, "Test Bench Design for Radiation Tolerance of Two ASICs", Romanian Journal of Physics, vol. 62, no. 903 (2017)
    9. L. N. Cojocariu, V. M. Placinta, L. Dumitru, "Monitoring system for testing the radiation hardness of a KINTEX-7 FPGA", in Proceedings of 9th International Physics Conference of the Balkan Physical Union (BPU-9), , Istanbul, Turkey (March 2015)
  2. Presentations at various national and international conferences/workshops/other events
    1. L. N. Cojocariu on behalf of the Romanian LHCb Group, "Studies on radiation-hardness of CMOS integrated circuits for Phase I and Phase II LHCb Upgrades", Joint ApPEC-­‐ECFA-­‐NuPECC Seminar, Paris, France, 14th - 16th October 2019 (poster)
    2. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, F. Maciuc, "Radiation Hardness Tests Done on KINTEX-7 FPGA for High Energy Physics Experiments", Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics 2019, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 2nd - 6th September 2019 (oral presentation)
    3. L. N. Cojocariu, V. M. Placinta, "Proton-Induced Radiation Effects in MAROC3, a full readout 0.35 µm SiGe ASIC", Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics 2019, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, 2nd - 6th September 2019 (poster)
    4. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, F. Maciuc, "Radiation Hardness Tests Done on KINTEX-7 FPGA for High Energy Physics Experiments", 19th International Balkan Workshop on Applied Physics and Materials Science (IBWAP 2019), Ovidius University of Constanta, Constanta, Romania, 16th - 19th July 2019 (poster)
    5. L. N. Cojocariu, V. M. Placinta, "Investigation of submicron Si-Ge BiCMOS technology node behaviour for two ASIC under proton beam irradiation", 19th International Balkan Workshop on Applied Physics and Materials Science (IBWAP 2019), Ovidius University of Constanta, Constanta, Romania, 16th - 19th July 2019 (poster)
    6. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, C. Ravariu, "I/O Blocks Reliability for an SRAM-Based FPGA When Exposed to Ionizing Radiation", 2018 International Semiconductor Conference (CAS), Sinaia, Romania (October 2018) (oral presentation)
    7. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, F. Maciuc, "Investigation of Proton-Induced Radiation Effects in 0.15 µm Antifuse FPGA", Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics (TWEPP) 2018 , KU Leuven, Antwerp, Belgium, 17th - 24th September 2018 (oral presentation)
    8. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, "Radiation Hardness of Field Programmable Gate Arrays in LHC Experiments", SAD-ETTI Symposium, University "Politehnica" of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania, July 2018 (oral presentation + poster)
    9. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, "Radiation Hardness of Field Programmable Gate Arrays in LHC Experiments", Third Barcelona Techno Week – Course on semiconductor detectors, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain, July 2018 (poster)
    10. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, C. Ravariu, "Evaluating the switching mode power supplies used in radiation hardness tests of integrated circuits", 2017 International Semiconductor Conference (CAS), Sinaia, Romania, October 2017 (oral presentation)
    11. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, F. Maciuc, "Radiation Hardness Studies and Evaluation of SRAM-Based FPGAs for High Energy Physics Experiments", Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics (TWEPP) 2017 , Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics (SCIPP), Santa Cruz California, SUA, 11th - 14th September 2017 (oral presentation)
    12. V. M. Placinta, "First Results on KINTEX-7 FPGA testing in mixed field radiation at CHARM facility", Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics (TWEPP) 2017 , Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics (SCIPP), Santa Cruz California, SUA, 11th - 14th September 2017 (oral presentation)
    13. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, "Test Bench Design for Evaluating the Performance of Multi-anode Photomultiplier Tubes", 17th International Balkan Workshop on Applied Physics and Materials Science (IBWAP 2017), Ovidius University of Constanta, Constanta, Romania, 11th - 14th July 2019 (oral presentation)
    14. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, "Test Bench for ASIC radiation hardness evaluation", Workshop on Sensors and High Energy Physics (SHEP 2016), Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, Suceava, Romania, 21th - 22th October 2016 (oral presentation)
    15. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu, "Kintex-7 Irradiation, Test Bench and Results", Topical Workshop on Electronics for Particle Physics (TWEPP) 2016 , Institutul Technologic din Karlsruhe (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany, 26th - 30th September 2016 (oral presentation)
    16. L. N. Cojocariu, V. M. Placinta, L. Dumitru, "Monitoring system for testing the radiation hardness of a KINTEX-7 FPGA", The 9th International Physics Conference of the Balkan Physical Union (BPU9), Istanbul, Turkey, 24th - 27th August 2015 (oral presentation)
    17. L. N. Cojocariu, V. M. Placinta, "Designing and implemententing test benches for radiation hardness qualifications of readout electronics from LHCb RICH photodectors", 15th International Balkan Workshop on Applied Physics and Materials Science (IBWAP 2015), Ovidius University of Constanta, Constanta, Romania, 2th - 4th July 2015 (oral presentation)
    18. V. M. Placinta, L. N. Cojocariu,, "Practical test bench used for testing Photomultiplier Tubes, type MaPMT", 15th International Balkan Workshop on Applied Physics and Materials Science (IBWAP 2015), Ovidius University of Constanta, Constanta, Romania, 2th - 4th July 2015 (poster)

    Teaching Activities

    1. Vlad-Mihai Placintă, "Introduction to Microcontrollers: Arduino Tutorial", invited seminars at the Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest (May 18, 2017)
      [ slides, source code of Arduino applications with Labview UI ]

    * Access to the web pages for following talks and meetings may be restricted.